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This is a condition in which a portion of nail presses into the flesh, causing pain, redness and sometimes infection. If this condition is left untreated, an exaggerated swelling of the skin along the nail border, known as proud flesh, can form.

A hammertoe is a flexible or rigid contrac­tion usually affecting the second, third, fourth or fifth toes. Most often a biome-chanical abnormality results in the larger muscles of the foot and leg overpowering the smaller intrinsic muscles of the foot. Muscle imbalance leads to a bending or "buckling" of the toe joints. These buckled or contracted positions create any number of problems within and on top of the toe deformity. One or more small joints become prominent on top of the malpositioned toe. Tendons, ligaments and joint capsules in that area have a greater chance of tightening and shortening. Shoe irritation of the deformed digit results.in corns, skin inflammation and inability to wear shoes comfortably. If left untreated, these conditions can progress to ulcers or infections.  Dr. Emanuel Fuzaylov is an experienced foot doctor in Brooklyn, Ny and Queens, Ny. Contact us for more podiatrist service information!

A mallet toe is similar to a hammertoe, except the deformity occurs closer to the end of the toe.

An overlapping toe is one that is malpositioned from birth or acquired over time. It often produces some abnormality in the tendon, ligaments or skin, many times producing painful corns.
All of the toe deformities mentioned can lead to other positional deformities, enlarge­ment of bone tissue or bone spurs. Shoes further aggravate these conditions and can cause additional pain, inflammation and corns.

The heel bone or calcaneus is the largest bone in the foot and projects backward beyond the leg bones to provide a useful lever for the muscles of the calf. It bears all of the body`s weight with each step. The stress placed on the heel bone and its associated structures is tremendous and makes it susceptible to what is known as plantar fasciitis or heel spur syndrome. The pain that results from these disorders is caused by the inflammation at the interface of the plantar fascia and heel bone. The plantar fascia constitutes the long band of fibers attached at the bottom of the heel bone and extend to where the toes begin. It also helps create the arch of the foot.
Plantar fasciitis and heel spur syndrome are usually the result of biomechanical faults. Biomechanical faults refer to such abnormalities as flexible flat feet, high-arched foot deformities and a tight Achilles tendon. These disorders place a greater amount of stress on the plantar fascia.


Bunions develop from a weakness in the bone structure of your foot. There is a strong possibility that heredity is the underlying cause. As a result, the joints have a tendency to move out of proper alignment given the instability of the bones and ligaments that form the various joints and arches in your feet. The bunions are not caused by improper shoegear but are significantly aggravated by improperly fitting shoes that place an unusual degree of pressure at the bunion joint.
As bunions become more severe, the joint moves out of proper alignment and eventually arthritis damages the joint space. The large toe will move sideways towards the second toe, and the foot tends to widen across the metatarsal area. This is a mechanical consequence not usually caused by shoegear. However, shoegear can certainly aggravate the condition and speed up the development of a more serious and significant deformity. To learn more contact 
 Dr. Emanuel Fuzaylov who is a foot doctor in Brooklyn, Ny with a lot of knowledge on bunions!

A tailor`s bunion is a small bunion at the base of the little toe. This condition is also known as a Bunionette. The name Tailor`s Bunion was derived from the way tailors used to sit with their legs crossed as they worked. Crossing their legs put pressure on the area known as the fifth metatarsal head, subsequently resulting in pain.
There are a few conditions which may cause the "bump" in this area:
1. An overgrowth or swelling of the soft tissue covering this joint (bursitis).
2. A congenitally (at birth) wide head of the fifth metatarsal bone.
3. An actual bowing and/or splaying of the fifth metatarsal bone.

Where the bone is splayed, the surgery will consist of cutting through the bone or cutting out a wedge of bone to improve its position. These procedures are known as osteotomies, corrective surgical fractures of the bone.

Orthotics are custom-fabricated shoe inserts manufactured from many types of materials such as plastic, polypropylene and graphite. They are worn on a full-time basis to control the way in which your foot functions as you walk. There are many kinds of orthotic devices, prescribed specific to your activity level, foot problems and other health factors. From walking to running, aerobics to basketball, orthotics can help you continue to enjoy your favorite activities.


Your podiatrist has recommended the use of a foot orthotic to control, relieve or treat your foot disorder. These devices may relieve pain or prevent the return of painful foot symptoms through control of foot function and mechanics. No doubt you have questions about orthotics, and hopefully this brochure will help to answer your questions.
Normally, the best orthotics are custom-made and specifically crafted to meet the needs of a particular patient. They may be combined with other forms of treatment such as injections, medications, physical therapy or surgery. Therefore they are an important component in the treatment and prevention of many foot disorders.